CCNP Exam Details and Objectives

The candidates planning to pursue the CCNP R&S credential must be ready to go through the process that includes passing three different exams. They are Cisco 300-101 ROUTE, Cisco 300-115 SWITCH and Cisco 300-135 TSHOOT.

Each of these tests comes with their individual objectives and the students are required to go through all of them before writing the exam(s).

The Cisco 300-101 ROUTE exam is made up of 45 to 65 questions and the duration for the completion of the test is 120 minutes. It is available in two languages such as English and Japanese. To register for the exam, the candidates have to pay the fee of $300.
The Cisco 300-115 SWITCH exam consists of 30-40 questions and you have a total of 120 minutes for their completion. The test can be also taken in two languages: Japanese and English. To register, you are required to pay the exam fee of $300.
The Cisco 300-135 TSHOOT exam comes with 15-25 questions that should be answered within 120 minutes.

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The certification test is available in the English and Japanese languages. As with other two exams, you have to pay the sum of $300 as the exam fee before you can complete your registration for this test.
It is essential to mention that you can write ROUTE first before SWITCH and vice versa. TSHOOT is the last exam you have to write to earn your certification.

Common Network Security Threats

Security is an important part of any company. As time passes, it’s easy to become lax on security measures.

You don’t know the importance of proper network security until your company is victim of an attack.

So what security threats does your company face? Some of the most common threats include:

Trojan horses
Spear phishing
Wi-Fi attacks
Denial of service (DOS) attacks
With so many network security threats, knowing how to protect your company is vital.

The CCNP Security professional offers operational support identity and network access control. They will identify and troubleshoot the Cisco network security appliances and the Cisco IOS Software devices that comprise your network’s security. The professional configures Cisco perimeter edge security solutions with the help of Cisco switches, Cisco routers, and Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) firewalls. The Certified Expert is responsible for executing and managing the security of the Cisco switches, Cisco routers, and Cisco ASA firewalls.


In addition to releasing important security updates for all its operating systems on June 1, Apple released the first beta of iOS and iPadOS 13.5.5. We have little information so far about what is included in the beta or when it will be released.

What’s new in iOS 13.5.5
The beta was released with no release notes, even on Apple’s developer site. That typically means that the release either focuses on bug fixes and performance, or that it incorporates code for testing unannounced features or products.

Audio News+
The sleuths at MacRumors found some references within iOS 13.5.5 for a new feature within Apple News: the ability to listen to audio versions of some news stories for Apple News+ subscribers.

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Future hardware?
If Apple intends to announce new products (like AirPods Studio or AirTags) at WWDC, it may be that iOS 13.5.5 is intended to add support for them. Or, at least, to lay all the groundwork necessary for more widespread testing. Since iOS 14 will not be released until this fall, any new products Apple intends to ship before then need to be supported in an iOS 13 update.


Since I began freelancing just over a year ago, I’ve had the opportunity to work with nearly a dozen high-growth startups and world-class experts. What’s more is that I’ve never had to negotiate for the premium prices I charge for my content marketing services.

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Because I’ve done such an effective job of defining my value propositions, branding myself as an expert within my field, and getting my content in front of new target audiences, I now have a 3–6 month waiting list for new freelance clients.

However, that certainly didn’t happen overnight. My rapid success in the world of freelancing is the result of a LOT of strategic positioning, hours of hard work, and good timing.

If you’re ready to get serious about freelancing and multiplying your self-employed income, here are my top twelve tips for earning more during your first year.


There are a number of distinct types of VLANs used in modern networks. Some VLAN types are defined by traffic classes. Other types of VLANs are defined by the specific function that they serve.


A data VLAN is a VLAN that is configured to carry user-generated traffic. A VLAN carrying voice or management traffic would not be part of a data VLAN. It is common practice to separate voice and management traffic from data traffic. A data VLAN, is sometimes referred to as a user VLAN. Data VLANs are used to separate the network into groups of users or devices.

Default VLAN

All switch ports become a part of the default VLAN after the initial boot up of a switch loading the default configuration. Switch ports that participate in the default VLAN are part of the same broadcast domain. This allows any device connected to any switch port to communicate with other devices on other switch ports. The default VLAN for Cisco switches is VLAN 1. In the figure, the show vlan brief command was issued on a switch running the default configuration. Notice that all ports are assigned to VLAN 1 by default.

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VLAN 1 has all the features of any VLAN, except it cannot be renamed or deleted. By default, all Layer 2 control traffic is associated with VLAN 1.

What is Computer Security and Information Security?

First of all Information security means protecting information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, modification, or destruction. The terms information security, computer security and information assurance are frequently used interchangeably. These fields are interrelated and share the common goals of protecting the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information.

Information security, sometimes shortened to infosec, is the practice of protecting information by mitigating information risks. It is part of information risk management.

With the introduction of the computer, the need for automated tools for protecting the files and other information stored on the computer became evident. This is especially the case for a shared system as like internet. Thus, computer security is the generic name for the collection of tools designed to protect data and to prevent hackers.

Computer Security rests on confidentiality, integrity and availability.

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Confidentiality is the concealment of information or resources. Cryptography can be the better choice for maintaining the privacy of information, which traditionally is used to protect the secret messages. Similarly, the privacy of resources, i.e. resource hiding can be maintained by using proper firewalls. Confidentiality is sometimes called secrecy or privacy.

What is Networking?

This definition of networking focuses on the basic goals of networking computers: increased manageability, security, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness over non-networked systems. We could also focus on the different types of networks:

LOCAL AREA NETWORKS (LANs) – which can range from a few desktop workstations in a small office/home office (SOHO) to several thousand workstations and dozens of servers deployed throughout dozens of buildings on a university campus or in an industrial park;
WIDE AREA NETWORKS (WANs) – which might be a company’s head office linked to a few branch offices or an enterprise spanning several continents with hundreds of offices and subsidiaries;
THE INTERNET – the world’s largest network and the “network of networks”.
We could also focus on the networking architectures in which these types of networks can be implemented:

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PEER-TO-PEER NETWORKING – which might be implemented in a workgroup consisting of computers running Microsoft Windows 98 or Windows 2000 Professional;
SERVER-BASED NETWORKING – which might be based on the domain model of Microsoft Windows NT, the domain trees and forests of Active Directory in Windows 2000, or another architecture such as Novell Directory Services (NDS) for Novell NetWare;
TERMINAL-BASED NETWORKING – which might be the traditional host-based mainframe environment; the UNIX X Windows environment; the terminal services of Windows NT 4, Server Enterprise Edition; Windows 2000 Advanced Server; or Citrix MetaFrame.

DHCP Use-Cases

Not every DHCP use case needs L7 visibility. For example detection of DHCP rogue server. DHCP rogue server is unauthorized server that also offers client’s IP addresses and other network parameters like default gateway and DNS server IP addresses. Such server represents not only operational but also security risks.

From operational point of view, clients may experience problems with network access or communicating with other hosts due to incorrect IP or gateway. From security point of view, DHCP rogue server can be used by attackers for various network attacks (man-in-the-middle, sniffing and reconnaissance attacks).

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DHCP rogue server detection can be handled by both Flowmon Monitoring Center and Flowmon ADS. Let’s start with Flowmon ADS. Flowmon ADS is equipped with DHCPANOM detection method. This method automatically detects non-legitimate DCHP servers, reports and alerts on such event. Using learned behavior of network nodes, the method can also detect anomalies in DHCP traffic.

What Is Artificial Intelligence Marketing?

Artificial intelligence marketing solutions offer ways to bridge the gap between data science and execution. The process of sifting through and analyzing huge dumps of data was once an insurmountable process and is now not only feasible, but it’s actually easy.

Let’s think about all of the new technologies that have hit the market in the past year or so. We’ve all heard about the iPhone 7, Google’s driverless cars, Snapchat Glasses, and even Elon Musk’s ‘city on Mars’. What about marketing-specific technologies though?

What is Artificial Intelligence Marketing?
Artificial intelligence marketing (AI Marketing) is a method of leveraging customer data and AI concepts like machine learning to anticipate your customer’s next move and improve the customer journey.

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The evolution of big data and advanced analytic solutions have made it possible for marketers to build a clearer picture of their target audiences than ever before; and in this hotbed of advancement lies artificial intelligence (AI) marketing.

Different types of Printers?

It prints characters as combination of dots. Dot matrix printers are the most popular among serial printers. These have a matrix of pins on the print head of the printer which form the character. The computer memory sends one character at a time to be printed by the printer. There is a carbon between the pins & the paper. The words get printed on the paper when the pin strikes the carbon. There are generally 24 pins.

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Laser Printer is a type of printer that utilizes a laser beam to produce an image on a drum. The light of the laser alters the electrical charge on the drum wherever it hits. The drum is then rolled through a reservoir of toner, which is picked up by the charged portions of the drum. Finally, the toner is transferred to the paper through a combination of heat and pressure.

This is also the way copy machines work. Because an entire page is transmitted to a drum before the toner is applied, laser printers are sometimes called page printers. There are two other types of page printers that fall under the category of laser printers even though they do not use lasers at all. One uses an array of LEDs to expose the drum and the other uses LCDs. Once the drum is charged, however, they both operate like a real laser printer. One of the chief characteristics of laser printers is their resolution – how many dots per inch (dpi) they lay down.

The available resolutions range from 300 dpi at the low end to 1,200 dpi at the high end. In addition to text, laser printers are very adept at printing graphics, so you need significant amounts of memory in the printer to print high-resolution graphics. To print a full-page graphic at 300 dpi, for example, you need at least 1 MB (megabyte) of printer RAM. For a 600 dpi graphic, you need at least 4 MB RAM.

Because laser printers are non-impact printers, they are much quieter than dotmatrix or daisy-wheel printers. They are also relatively fast, although not as fast as some dot-matrix or daisy-wheel printers. The speed of laser printers ranges from about 4 to 20 pages of text per minute (ppm). A typical rate of 6ppm is equivalent to about 40 characters per second (cps).